Education for individuals with Down syndrome - An overview
Sue Buckley and Gillian Bird
This module reviews the development of educational provision for children with Down syndrome. It details the research examining the outcomes from special and inclusive schools, and the factors relating to these outcomes. These studies indicate that appropriate education provided in inclusive settings offers the best opportunities for children with Down syndrome. Inclusion in mainstream classrooms produces significant gains for expressive language skills and academic achievements, particularly in literacy. The implication for parents is that they should seek inclusive education placements for their children from preschool years. However, the benefits require successful inclusion from committed educators. Some of the key issues that are relevant to successful inclusion are discussed.
Buckley SJ, Bird G. Education for individuals with Down syndrome - An overview. Down Syndrome Issues and Information. 2000.
Why is education important for all children? What are
the aims or goals of education? The experience of education in schools provides
two main opportunities for children; the opportunity to acquire skills for adult
life and work and the opportunity to learn the social values of the culture. Together,
these experiences equip children to become successful adults in both their personal
and public lives in the community. The social learning opportunities provided by
schools are as important as the academic learning. The school can pass on the values
of the culture and the school community can demonstrate the values that we would
all like to experience in action in our adult communities.
What are the goals of education for children with Down
syndrome? They are the same as for all other children; which is to equip children
with Down syndrome to lead independent adult lives in the community. Most will need
some degree of support from friends, family and services, but education will make
a significant difference to the level of independence achieved in work, social and
Do we know the best way to educate children with Down
syndrome? Do we have any evidence for the comparative benefits of special education
in segregated special education schools or classrooms compared with inclusive education
within a mainstream classroom? Do we know what the special educational needs of
children and teenagers with Down syndrome are? If we do know what specific additional
learning needs they have, are we developing support in educational settings and
teaching programmes to effectively meet their needs?
The collection of objective evidence is beginning to provide
answers to these questions. There now is some comparative data on the social and
educational outcomes from different types of school placement. Most of this has
been collected in the United Kingdom and the findings are reviewed in this module.
An increasingly sophisticated understanding of the specific effects of Down syndrome
on cognitive development is emerging. This information has implications for the
educational support that individuals require from infancy through their school years.
This research into the specific developmental and learning
needs of children with Down syndrome is set out in detail elsewhere in this series,
but the implications of these for planning education are briefly discussed in the
concluding section of this module.
There are a number of education projects in different
parts of the world at the present time, where expert teams are supporting inclusive
educational placements for children with Down syndrome, providing training and publishing
practical guidelines for schools and classroom teachers such as The Prep Programme
in Calgary, Canada and the Down Syndrome Society
of South Australia Programme based in Adelaide, Australia.[2,3]
In both these programmes, teams of experts are working to demonstrate how to achieve
effective, successful inclusion from independent projects committed to the welfare
of children with Down syndrome. Published data on developmental and educational
outcomes for representative groups of children is, however, sparse and this type
of data is needed to convince educators and parents that inclusion in education
is benefiting children with Down syndrome.
Do we know the best way to educate children with
- We have some understanding of the effects of Down syndrome on development
and these have implications for education.
- Expert teams are helping to develop successful inclusion in some countries.
- Early pioneers have demonstrated lasting benefits from early intervention
programmes and academic expectations in school.
- Research into educational outcomes from different types of schools is
There have also been some progressive teams providing
documented early intervention programmes from the 1970s, notably in Seattle in
the USA,[4,5] in Minnesota,
USA[6-8] and in Sydney, Australia.[9-12]
These pioneers in the education of children with Down syndrome demonstrated that
many of the children could achieve more than had been expected and they have followed
the children through their educational careers, reporting lasting benefits from
the early intervention programmes and subsequent achievements in school. However,
the Australian reports are based on fairly small numbers of individuals and they
have often had changes of school placement, so while the data shows benefits of
there is a need for larger controlled comparisons. The Minnesota team have reported
data across large longitudinal and cross-sectional samples of children with Down
syndrome, showing that many are acquiring academic skills in reading and number,
and benefiting from an educational curriculum but their data does not allow comparison
between special and mainstream school outcomes.
Since most of the published comparative studies have been
conducted in the UK, the next section describes the development of education for
children with Down syndrome in the UK in order to enable readers to relate the findings
of the studies to their own education system. In the authors' experience, teachers
find this historical background helpful for understanding the literature on the
development of children with Down syndrome and the way in which educational provision
is evolving in most countries.
The education of children with Down syndrome
Until comparatively recently, children with Down syndrome
were considered 'ineducable'. In the United Kingdom, for example, the diagnosis of
Down syndrome led to the child being identified as ''unfit to benefit from education
in school'' until 1971. Similarly, in most other countries, the majority of children
with Down syndrome have only gained access to education within the last 30 years.
In many developing countries the majority of children with Down syndrome still do
not have access to education in schools.
The reader should note that this means that much research
on the development of individuals with Down syndrome published before 1980 is based
on the study of individuals who received little or no education and were usually
excluded from community activities as well. It also means that most adults with
Down syndrome who are over 25 years old in the United Kingdom received at best limited
education at school or none at all. Social isolation and educational deprivation
will have a negative effect on any child's development, including a child with Down
syndrome. The pre-1980 studies are therefore of questionable value as it is not
possible to separate out the effects of Down syndrome on development from the effects
of social and educational deprivation. Better understanding of the levels of cognitive
or social development which children with Down syndrome are able to achieve will
only be obtained when they are fully included in the social world of childhood in
their communities and have access to optimal health, therapy and education services.